Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives : further results

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dc.contributor.author Calle, EE.
dc.contributor.author Heath, CW.
dc.contributor.author Miracle McMahill, HL.
dc.contributor.author Coates, RJ.
dc.contributor.author Liff, JM.
dc.contributor.author Franceschi, S
dc.contributor.author Talamini, R.
dc.contributor.author Chantarakul, N.
dc.contributor.author Koetsawang, S.
dc.contributor.author Rachawat, D.
dc.contributor.author Morabia, A.
dc.contributor.author Schuman, L.
dc.contributor.author Stewart, W.
dc.contributor.author Szklo, M.
dc.contributor.author Bain, C.
dc.contributor.author Schofield, F.
dc.contributor.author Siskind, V.
dc.contributor.author Band, P
dc.contributor.author Coldman, AJ.
dc.contributor.author Gallagher, RP.
dc.contributor.author Hislop, TG.
dc.contributor.author Yang, P.
dc.contributor.author Duffy, SW.
dc.contributor.author Kolonel, LM. LM.
dc.contributor.author Nomura, Amy
dc.contributor.author Oberle, Mark W.
dc.contributor.author Ory, HW
dc.contributor.author Peterson, HB
dc.contributor.author Wilson, HG.
dc.contributor.author Wingo, PA
dc.contributor.author Ebeling, K.
dc.contributor.author Kunde, D.
dc.contributor.author Nishan, P.
dc.contributor.author Colditz, G.
dc.contributor.author Martin, N
dc.contributor.author Pardthaisong, T.
dc.contributor.author Silpisornkosol, S.
dc.contributor.author Theetranont, C.
dc.contributor.author Boosiri, B
dc.contributor.author Chutivongse, S
dc.contributor.author Jimakorn, P.
dc.contributor.author Virutamasen, P.
dc.contributor.author Wongsrichanalai, C.
dc.contributor.author McMichael, AJ.
dc.contributor.author Rohan, T.
dc.contributor.author Ewertz, M.
dc.contributor.author Paul, C.
dc.contributor.author Skegg, DCG.
dc.contributor.author Spears, GFS.
dc.contributor.author Boyle, P
dc.contributor.author Evstifeeva, T.
dc.contributor.author Daling, JR.
dc.contributor.author Malone, K.
dc.contributor.author Noonan, EA.
dc.contributor.author Stanford, JL.
dc.contributor.author Thomas, DB.
dc.contributor.author Weiss, NS.
dc.contributor.author White, E.
dc.contributor.author Andrieu, N.
dc.contributor.author Bremond, A. A.
dc.contributor.author Clavel, F.
dc.contributor.author Gairard, B.
dc.contributor.author Lansac, J.
dc.contributor.author Piana, L.
dc.contributor.author Renaud, R.
dc.contributor.author Fine, SRP.
dc.contributor.author Cuevas, HR.
dc.contributor.author Ontiveros, P.
dc.contributor.author Palet, A.
dc.contributor.author Salazar, SB.
dc.contributor.author Aristizabel, N.
dc.contributor.author Cuadros, A.
dc.contributor.author Bachelot, A.
dc.contributor.author Le, MG.
dc.contributor.author Deacon, J.
dc.contributor.author Peto, J.
dc.contributor.author Taylor, CN.
dc.contributor.author Alfandary, E.
dc.contributor.author Modan, B.
dc.contributor.author Ron, E.
dc.contributor.author Friedman, GD.
dc.contributor.author Hiatt, RA.
dc.contributor.author Bishop, T
dc.contributor.author Kosmelj, K.
dc.contributor.author Primic Zakelj, M.
dc.contributor.author Ravnihar, B.
dc.contributor.author Stare, J.
dc.contributor.author Beeson, WL.
dc.contributor.author Fraser, G.
dc.contributor.author Allen, DS.
dc.contributor.author Bulbrook, RD.
dc.contributor.author Cuzick, J.
dc.contributor.author Fentiman, IS.
dc.contributor.author Hayward, JL.
dc.contributor.author Wang, DY.
dc.contributor.author Hanson, RL.
dc.contributor.author Leske, MC.
dc.contributor.author Mahoney, MC.
dc.contributor.author Nasca, PC.
dc.contributor.author Varma, AO
dc.contributor.author Weinstein, AL.
dc.contributor.author Moller, TR.
dc.contributor.author Olsson, H.
dc.contributor.author Ranstam, J.
dc.contributor.author Goldbohm, RA.
dc.contributor.author Van den Brandt, PA.
dc.contributor.author Apelo, RA.
dc.contributor.author Baens, J.
dc.contributor.author Cruz de la, JR.
dc.contributor.author Javier, B.
dc.contributor.author Lacaya, LB.
dc.contributor.author Ngelangel, CA.
dc.contributor.author La Vecchia, C.
dc.contributor.author Negri, E.
dc.contributor.author Marbuni, E.
dc.contributor.author Ferraroni, M.
dc.contributor.author Gerber, M.
dc.contributor.author Richardson, S.
dc.contributor.author Segala, C.
dc.contributor.author Gatei, D.
dc.contributor.author Kenya, P.
dc.contributor.author Kungu, A.
dc.contributor.author Mati, JG.
dc.contributor.author Brinton, LA.
dc.contributor.author Hoover, R.
dc.contributor.author Schairer, C.
dc.contributor.author Spirtas, R.
dc.contributor.author Rookus, MA.
dc.contributor.author Van Leeuwen, FE.
dc.contributor.author Schoenberg, JA.
dc.contributor.author Lee, HP.
dc.contributor.author Gammon, MD.
dc.contributor.author Clarke, EA.
dc.contributor.author Jones, L.
dc.contributor.author McPherson, K.
dc.contributor.author Neil, A.
dc.contributor.author Vessey, M.
dc.contributor.author Yeates, D.
dc.contributor.author Beral, V.
dc.contributor.author Bull, D.
dc.contributor.author Crossley, B.
dc.contributor.author Hermon, C.
dc.contributor.author Jones, S.
dc.contributor.author Key, T.
dc.contributor.author Lewis, C.
dc.contributor.author Reeves, G.
dc.contributor.author Smith, P.
dc.contributor.author Collins, R.
dc.contributor.author Doll, R.
dc.contributor.author Peto, R.
dc.contributor.author Hannaford, P.
dc.contributor.author Kay, C.
dc.contributor.author Rosero-Bixby, Luis
dc.contributor.author Yuan, J-M.
dc.contributor.author Wei, HY.
dc.contributor.author Yun, T.
dc.contributor.author Zhiheng, C.
dc.contributor.author Berry, G.
dc.contributor.author Cooper Booth, J.
dc.contributor.author Jelihovsky, T.
dc.contributor.author MacLennan, R.
dc.contributor.author Shearman, R.
dc.contributor.author Wang, Q-S.
dc.contributor.author Baines, CJ.
dc.contributor.author Miller, AB.
dc.contributor.author Wall, C.
dc.contributor.author Lund, E.
dc.contributor.author Stalsberg, H.
dc.contributor.author Dabancens, A.
dc.contributor.author Martínez, L.
dc.contributor.author Molina, R.
dc.contributor.author Salas, O.
dc.contributor.author Alexander, FE.
dc.contributor.author Hulka, BS.
dc.contributor.author Chilvers, CED.
dc.contributor.author Bernstein, L.
dc.contributor.author Haile, RW.
dc.contributor.author Paganini Hill, A.
dc.contributor.author Pike, MC.
dc.contributor.author Ross, RK.
dc.contributor.author Ursin, G.
dc.contributor.author Yu, MC.
dc.contributor.author Adami, HO.
dc.contributor.author Bergstrom, R.
dc.contributor.author Longnecker, MP.
dc.contributor.author Newcomb, P.
dc.contributor.author Hoick, S.
dc.contributor.author Meirik, O.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-07-13T16:11:11Z
dc.date.available 2016-07-13T16:11:11Z
dc.date.issued 1996
dc.identifier.issn 00107824
dc.identifier.uri http://biblioteca.ccp.ucr.ac.cr/handle/123456789/1150
dc.description.abstract The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives. Original data from 54 studies, representing about 90% o f the information available on the topic, were collected, checked and analysed centrally. The 54 studies were performed in 26 countries and include a total o f 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women without breast cancer. The studies were varied in their design, setting and timing. Most information came from case-control studies with controls chosen from the general population; most women resided in Europe or North America and most cancers were diagnosed during the 1980s. Overall 41% o f the women with breast cancer and 40% of the women without breast cancer had used oral contraceptives at some time; the median age at first use was 26 years, the median duration o f use was 3 years, the median year o f first use was 1968, the median time since first use was 16 years, and the median time since last use was 9 years. The main findings, summarised elsewhere,1 are that there is a small increase in the risk o f having breast cancer diagnosed in current users o f combined oral contraceptives and in women who had stopped use in the past 10 years but that there is no evidence o f an increase in the risk more than 10 years after stopping use. In addition, the cancers diagnosed in women who had used oral contraceptives tended to be less advanced clinically than the cancers diagnosed in women who had not used them. Despite the large number o f possibilities investigated, few factors appeared to modify the main findings either in recent or in past users. For recent users who began use before age 20 the relative risks are higher than for recent users who began at older ages. For women whose use of oral contraceptives ceased more than 10 years before there was some suggestion o f a reduction in breast cancer risk in certain subgroups, with a deficit o f tumors that had spread beyond the breast, especially among women who had used preparations containing the highest doses o f oestrogen and progestogen. These findings are unexpected and need to be confirmed. Although these data represent most o f the epidemiological evidence on the topic to date, there is still insufficient information to comment reliably about the effects o f specific types o f oestrogen or o f progestogen. What evidence there is suggests, however, no major differences in the effects for specific types o f oestrogen or o f progestogen and that the pattern of risk associated with use of hormonal contraceptives containing progestogens alone may be similar to that observed for preparations containing both oestrogens and progestogens. On the basis o f these results, there is little difference between women who have and have not used combined oral contraceptives in terms o f the estimated cumulative number o f breast cancers diagnosed during the period from starting use up to 20 years after stopping. The cancers diagnosed in women who have used oral contraceptives are, however, less advanced clinically than the cancers diagnosed in never users. Further research is needed to establish whether the associations described here are due to earlier diagnosis of breast cancer in women who have used oral contraceptives, to the biological effects of the hormonal contraceptives or to a combination of both. Little information is as yet available about the effects on breast cancer risk of oral contraceptive use that ceased more than 20 years before and as such data accumulate it will be necessary to reexamine the worldwide evidence. es
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Elsevier en
dc.rights Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 3.0 Costa Rica *
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/cr/ *
dc.subject Cáncer en
dc.subject Cáncer de mama en
dc.subject Anticonceptivos en
dc.title Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives : further results en
dc.title.alternative Contraception an International Journal. 54(3) en
dc.type Article en


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